Film Analysis Paper



Film Analysis: Joy Luck Club

Joy Luck club portrays cultural conflict between Chinese culture and the American culture as depicted by the lives of four mothers and their daughters. The mothers were born, and brought up in China, and therefore adopted the high-content Chinese culture, while the daughters were born and brought up in America and adopted the low-content American culture. The story is all about the cultural clash between mothers and daughters. Back in China, the mothers endured hardship and developed a deeper meaning of life, while their daughters have not experience as much difficulty in life as their mothers. (

Part 1: Compare and contrast the mothers and daughters in terms of Chinese and American culture. In what ways do the mothers represent China and the daughters, America? Be specific and discuss three ways in which the mothers represent traditional Chinese culture and the daughters, America.

The daughters of the four mothers are indeed Chinese, but the fact that they were born and brought up in America makes them American by naturalization. They had the privilege of enjoying the liberal lifestyle of America unlike their mothers who overcame a miserable and difficult past before they moved to America.

In a high context culture cultural acquisition is done through obedience to authority, imitation and observation. In order for children to acquire and internalize knowledge in this type of culture, they have to undergo careful training. This type of culture are highly rooted on the past, unresponsive to change, and very stable. In addition, high context cultures such as Chinese culture are highly cohesive. Low context culture is characterized by rapid changes, weak bonds between people, and easy initiation and stoppage of actions (Kim, 2009).

In China, the mothers were observant, obedient and imitated what was required of them by the elders. This was achieved without any explanation from the elders. They had internalized everything and assumed that their daughter would emulate them since they also adopted the mannerisms form their mothers. For example, the characterAm-mei sees in her mother “my own true nature. What was beneath my skin? Inside my bones” (pg. 40); to her, connection to her mother or filial respect is “so deep it is in your bones” (pg. 41). Contrary to their expectation their American bred daughters do not heed to their warning nor follow their instructions. There is so a lot of misunderstanding, resentment and misrepresentation between the daughters and their mothers. The conversation between June and Suyuen clearly depicts this scenario. “My mother and I never really understood one another. We translated each other’s meanings and I seemed to hear less than what was said, while my mother heard more” (p. 27). The mothers are conservative and traditional unlike their daughters who are liberal and radical. They want their daughter to get married to Chinese men and not American men. They do not approve of their daughter dressing styles, although their daughters consider their dressing odd and full of color clashing (Kim, 2009).

Symbols in the Film

Food is used in the food to show love. June prepare her father favorite dish to comfort him after the death of her mother. It also symbolizes relationship and character. Food unites people leading to the development of relationship. For, example Waverly arranges to eat auntie Suyuan’s house. Food is also used to show character as is portrayed by Waverly selfish act of picking the best crabs for her family. Clothing is used to show cultural identity, as well as the clashing of the two cultures. Suyuan wears an expensive chinese silk dress together with an oversize American jacket(Kim, 2009).


Part 2: Describe how your selected article relates to the film. Summarize the article and connect its concepts to the film or the issues raised in the film.

The article clearly brings out the cultural conflict between the high context Chinese culture and the low context American culture as shown in the film; Joy Luck Club. Culture refers to the way of living associated with a particular group of people. It is developed and transmitted from one generation to another.


High context culture

A culture is described as a high-context culture when individuals of that culture internalize information, such that little of written or spoken messages are needed in the process of communication. In this type of culture it is assumed that both the listener and the speaker share a common background and knowledge. The listener often knows what is meant with little emphasis. China is a high-context culture.


Low context culture

In a low-context culture information and meaning is openly specified in the message during the process of communication. Individuals in this type of culture expect explanations in cases of unclear statements or situations. Facts are not internalized by the individual; instead they are derived from context. The United States is an example of a low-context culture.














Film: The First Grader

Why do so many Kenyans challenge this Mau Mau freedom fighter’s quest for an education?

Most Kenyans were against the quest of Maruge for education since they considered him so old to sit together with children who qualify to be his grandchildren as his classmates. It is not culturally appropriate for an elder to be taught together with his grandchildren. In fact it is embarrassing, since he will have to borrow a lot from the children who still have high ability to grasp knowledge unlike him. Education is only beneficial for those who are still developing like children, and not a dying old man. Considering that most classes in Kenya are usually full, the presence of Maruge could possibly be denying another child a chance of getting education. More over the presence of Maruge in the same class with children could possibly have distracted them for acquiring knowledge. If he was really so eager to get education, then the best option was to enroll into adult classes. The case of Maruge was merely an attention seeking and publicity venture, and fortunately he achieved it.

Using the internet, explore education in Kenya. How is their system alike or different than education in the US?

The Kenyan education system is referred to as 8-4-4 system. This system is characterized by eight years of primary school, which is equivalent of elementary level in the United States education system, four years of high school, and four years of higher education. The education system in US is categorized into elementary school, middle high school, high school and higher education. Education in US begins in pre-school just like in Kenya. After pre-school, a child is enrolled into the first grade as he or she enters into elementary school. The grading starts from the first grade in elementary school to the twelfth grade in high school. After graduating from the twelfth grade a person can join a college or university for higher learning. The Kenyan system is quite similar to the US system since a child spends a total of 12 years in school before qualifying to join an institution of higher learning (Park, 2007).

What lessons does Maruge teach Jane? What does he teach the children? Why does he want to learn to read and write so badly?

Maruge teaches Jane to be resilient and a fighter who believes in the right cause despite so much pressure. To the children he teaches them that there is power in the pen, and that anyone who does not know how to read is just like a goat. Maruge narrates his story as Mau Mau fighter to the class and the children learns that success comes through struggle and sweat. Maruge wanted to learn so that he could be able to read a letter he had received form the president. He also wanted to be able to read the bible (Park, 2007).


Part Two: How does your selected scholarly journal article relate to the film? Summarize your article and explain the connection.

The article highlights the struggle of a Mau Mau veteran to get education despite his old age. He overcomes a lot of challenges and ridicule as he struggles to know how to read and write. Maruge, an 84 year old man overcomes so many hurdles to become the oldest pupil in the world that warranted his entry to the worlds Guinness books of records.The article clearly shows that Maruge resilient and a fighter who believes in the right cause despite hardship. To the children he teaches them that there is power in the pen, and that anyone who does not know how to read is just like a goat. Maruge narrates his story as Mau Mau fighter to the class and the children learns that success comes through struggle and sweat. Maruge wanted to learn so that he could be able to read a letter he had received form the president. He also wanted to be able to read the bible (Park, 2007).














Film: Anna Karenina

Part 1

Is Anna a likeable character? Do you sympathize with her, or is she a ‘villain’ of sorts? Explain.

Anna is likeable because she is determined to live a life of her own. She has the will to live her desires, and the courage to make her own decisions. Her struggle finally ends up in suicide since the man she fought for turned against her. He was all she was fighting for, and now that the whole society was on her neck she could not bear the pressure without the backing of Vronsky, her love (Tolstoj & Misiaszek, 2005).

Is Anna unjustly punished because of her gender; because of her class/station in life; or because she represents a progressive, modern quality that the society is simply not ready to embrace? Or is she punished justly? Explain.

Anna is unjustly punished because of her gender. Although Vronsky and Ann are guilty of the same crime, he is not punished because he is a male. The status of Vronsky rises very fast in the society, while they are both guilty of the same crime.  It is painful to note that Vronsky moves about in society quite unaffected, while Anna must bear all its condemnation. In comparison with Vronsky’s, Anna’s disillusionment is much more shattering, and hence justifies her end. The destruction of Anna is as much caused by her love for Vronsky, as it has by life she is forced to live due to being made an outcast by society. Anna’s last hope of ideal happiness is wrecked by the oppression of those around her (Tolstoj & Misiaszek, 2005).

Part Two: Summarize the content of your selected journal article and explain how it relates to the film.

The article clearly points out the struggle of Anna in a society where women are highly discriminated. Although adultery is not accept in the society, but it seems that men are allowed to be adulterous, while women will be condemned to death if found guilty of condemnation. The author clearly shows the place of women in the society. Anna tried to raise her voice in a society where women have no say (Tolstoj & Misiaszek, 2005).











Film: A passage of India

Compare Forster’s depiction of the English with his depiction of Aziz’s Indian community. How are these groups similar and different? Does the author seem biased in his portrayals?

In the passage of India Foster portrays the Anglo-Indian relationship between. The novel describes the relationship between the societies during the colonial period in India. The societies include the natives, the Indians, and the colonialist British. The author depicts the harsh rule that was employed by the British in India. It describes how the different cultures interacted to establish relationship. The film portrays the barriers of inter-racial friendship in a colonial context. Although the India treats the British with respect and dignity, the Englishmen do not treat them in a similar manner even though they are Christians unlike Indians whose religion is Hinduism (Davies & Wood, 1994).

Additionally, Forster uses the film to address the issue of how foreigners can best understand as well as make peace with the bewilderment that is India. Forster also shows several main characters including Adela, Mrs. Moore, and Fielding who experiencing spiritual crises in the face of the chaos of Indian experience. Foster offers the Hindu vision of the oneness of all living things as a possible answer to the problem of figuring out India. The most mystical characters of the novel take the spotlight in Part III.

In what ways does the relationship of Fielding and Aziz represent the author’s message about cross-cultural understanding?

Cultural misunderstanding is a major theme in the film. The cultural ideas and expectations touching on hospitality, social properties and the role of religion in daily life are very different, and cause misunderstandings between the English and Indian, as well as various religions such as Muslims and Hindus in India. Fielding is able to develop a good relationship with the native Indians unlike other Englishmen. The relationship between Fielding and Aziz shows that it possible to develop a successful cross cultural relationship. Fielding does not distinct himself from the native population based on race. He is able to individually interact with them on a person to person level. He treats Indian with respect and courtesy. Although Forster is pessimistic about Fielding and Aziz’s friendship, he at least offers the collectivity of Hindu love as a potential source of hope and redeeming possibility (Davies & Wood, 1994).











Film: Love in the Time of Cholera

This work is saturated with symbols provided by nature. Describe two natural symbols that are repeated in the film. What do these symbols represent?

Cholera is an important symbol as it drives the plot of the story. It causes migration of peoples and death. Fermina’s family migrates to the city in order to escape the Cholera epidemic. The death of Dr. Urbino’s father is caused by cholera. It is also used to represent love. It turns out that “cholera” breaks out over the place in the novel and is a cause of exodus with Femina’s family moving out of the city. As such, cholera motivates a lot of action in the entire novel.

Animals like bird forms a significant symbols in the story as the influence several actions. The birds cause young Dr. Urbino to trip and miss an important appointment leading to the death of a man. In Chapter 5, Florentino and Leona Cassiani “killed the tiger.” This is simply symbolism that implies that they have overcome any remaining sexual tension between them with the “tiger” representing that tension. Since the two met, there has been an enduring sexual tension between them especially because Florentino had at first mistaken Leona for a whore. However, the current of sexual chemistry that exists between the two seems to lessen in the years after their first meeting. The two are able to “kill the tiger” with honest communication (Bloom, 2005).

Is the central love story a real love story? Is the relationship between Fermina and Florentino romantic love? Obsessive love? True love?

The relationship between Fermina and Florentiono is a true love since it was able to overcome the test of time to become substantial. The story between the two love birds is not a conventional one.  It comes out as the most powerful love since it seems eternal. Florentino use flowery sentiments to express love. This often appears so much overrated to be real or serious.  One the other hand Fermina is too hard and proud to an extend it interferes with expression of feelings towards Florentino.  After a period of more than fifty years, their love is cemented as they find complete peace in love (Bloom, 2005).













Films Summary

Part 1: Synthesizing all the readings /films you’ve completed over the last 8 weeks, describe a unifying thread joining all or most of these works. (This could be a theme, message, tone, literary style, etc.).  

The films bring different aspect of cultures, the theme of love, the struggle to fit into the societal norms and death. Culture is composed of arts, thinking habit, acting, institution, skills, concepts, ways of relating to the world, and agreement on what is considered significant and necessary to know. Class, race, gender and ethnicity are creations of culture since their meanings are derived from culture. Various cultural contexts are clearly shown by the films. Context can be described as the entire situation or environment that is linked to an individual, event or a situation. Cultural conflicts due to interaction of different cultures. The use of symbols and tonal variation are dominant styles in the films.

Part Two: How does contemporary writing (the new releases you see in bookstores or the NYTimes Bestseller List) in America seem to represent an American “voice” of the 21st century?

America is portrayed as a country with a rich cultural heritage since it is composed of people of various cultures form all over the world. This makes it have a various cultural twist. It is a high paced society that is frequented with radical changes on various aspect of life. The United States culture is mainly a Western culture; however, it is greatly influence by the Native Americans, Asians, African American, Latin Americans, and many other cultures. Culture is composed of social norms, beliefs which characterize particular age, ethnic or social group ethnic. The social norms and beliefs may include traditions, music, religion, language and arts. The books also show the struggle of Americans towards the realization of the American dreams during the period of tough economic times. The issue of terrorism and slam religion, as well as the liberal approach of dealing with contentious issues like same sex marriages have predominated the current literature on America.






































Bloom, H. (2005). Gabriel García Márquez’s Love in the time of cholera. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.

Davies, T., & Wood, N. (1994). A Passage to India. Buckingham [England: Open University Press

Kim, S., & Tan, A. (2009). The Joy Luck Club. New York, NY: Dramatists Play Service.

Park, B., & Brunkus, D. (2007). Junie B., first grader: dumb bunny. New York: Random House.

Tolstoj, L. N., & Misiaszek, A. (2005). Anna Karenina. Kraków: Zielona Sowa.

Describe the nature and purpose of the business.

Service description:

The proposed service is an eRecycling Management solution that would collect electronic waste from customers processed through an ecommerce platform and aggregates the electronic waste and sends it to electronic waste processing centers in United States. The types of electronic waste processed would be computers, mobiles, televisions and other electronic goods that have a silicon substrate that can be recycled and provide a minimal silicon yield, sufficient to balance the cost of logistics from individual customers and aggregation centers.

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College Homework Help

The block diagram below shows the business model of the proposed venture in brief process steps. The customer places a request for pickup of used electronic items along with the OEM make, Model Specifications etc. The specifications would be matched with an existing catalogue of products and an assessable value is generated manually. The firm would then arrange for pickup of the scrap based on a pre-scheduled collection schedule based on the area. The customer gets paid based on the assessable value in the catalogue on the eCommerce platform. The picked material is sent by collection vehicles to an aggregation centre for further sorting to match waste of similar yields. The classified waste is then sent to third party eWaste processing centers through a 3PL logistics player and the firm is paid on the assessable value of the total waste dispatched.








What competitive advantage would it have as an e-business? That is what advantage would it have for customers, or as a means of greater efficiency, etc?

Electronic waste disposal is a topic of significant interest in a developed and responsible economy such as the United States. With newer regulations on waste disposal and increased awareness of proper waste management techniques, the firm would leverage the amount of electronic waste in a high per-capita consumption economy such as the United States. Decreasing product life cycles, increasing discretionary spending and a wide spectrum of technology options have made increasing contribution to electronic waste in the united states while also posing a significant problem of the management of the waste. The proposed firm is very well suited to leverage the growing challenge of electronic waste management.

Consumers are also growing conscious of the need to dispose electronic waste in a timely and easy manner. The proposed service would be a hassle-free process where the customers would find it a one-stop solution for disposing their used electronic equipments through an electronic channel.


What or who would be the main competition, if any? Why?

With electronic equipment costs increasing due to high input costs and sophisticated technologies, the customer spend are higher. The major competitors are players who can be a market or a medium to reach a market for used electronic goods. There exists a large used electronics market in the United States. Also the second hand market is enabled through major eCommerce channels like eBay.

The other source of competition would be the OEM manufacturers who resort to sales promotional activities including exchange and buyback schemes. These channels not only find a better resale value for the used electronic equipment, they also serve an easier platform to transact over the internet or directly.


What is the potential target market for the product (goods or services) of this business, in terms of the types of customers and annual revenues?

The potential target market for the proposed service is users of high end electronic goods in the United States who are both environmental conscious and are eCommerce-savvy. United States has a mobile concentration of 85% and a television penetration of nearly over 95% households. And the demand for newer technologies increase with the passing days, the churn of televisions and other electronic equipments are on the rise. The potential market is made of these technology savvy and environmental conscious consumers, who would take the extra initiative to dispose off the eWaste safely.


What are the potential risks of this business? For example, why might customers not want the product or service?

The business model is based on the premise of economical collection of electronic waste and the yield from the used electronic substrates in these devices. Consequently, there lies a significant risk in the efficiency of the reverse logistics from the customers to the aggregation centers and further back to the processing plants. Since this is an introductory service, demand is likely to be volatile making it difficult to plan appropriate logistics. Poor logistics planning can result in significant cost escalations putting inflationary pressures on the fledgling business’ expenses. Also with increasing cost of fuel, the sustainability of the business need to be evaluated carefully.

The other risk is that of an appropriate method of evaluating possible recyclable yield from the eWaste collected from the customers. Hence a well defined guidance method needs to be in place to divert risk from the business while maintaining a healthy yield ratio necessary to sustain the business.

Another potential risk is the growing amount of frauds in the eCommerce businesses with sophisticated scams including siphoning of money and other hacking activities that may disrupt the operations of the proposed business in its stage of infancy.

It is to be borne in mind since the business model is based on an internet portal and hence barriers to entry are lesser and can attract competition with firms specializing in reverse logistics.

Healthcare case analysis

AstraZeneca UK Limited passion about bringing new medicines to patients depended on David Brennan-the C.E.O, experience as a front line doctor. The transforming market posed challenges such as less patent protection, more generic drugs competition, stiffer government regulations, and reduced R&D production. He therefore needed to address all areas of AZN’s value chain, develop a strategy like prescription of beneficial drugs, grow the business globally, streamline the organization, increase efficiency, and built courage, creativity and collaboration culture.

AZN was faced with the challenges in the pharmaceutical market towards the changing of how new medicines flow to patients. The article will address the challenges and the industry pressure in ensuring this course against the odds like challenges of new products failing to reach the market, expiring of patents on important medicines, faltering of the economic environment, heightened competition, slower pipelines, and drug safety issues. This greatly depended on AZN’s R&D performing its function to deliver.

The world of pharmaceutical market was valued at $754 million in 2010, where established markets averaged a 3.2% growth and emerging markets registered a 13.8% growth. The steady transformation 40 years ago had however began a radical transformation characterized by unfavorable conditions mentioned above. Drug safety issues resulted to reduced customer confidence, which was increased by high prescription costs coupled by the reluctance of coverage drugs over brand names by HMO’s. Regulations demanded more safety data which meant additional costs coupled with the fact that the FDA in the U.S was approving fewer products meaning slower time to market. The pharmaceutical industry traditionally was R&D; successful firms are those which delivered the most successful drugs. Firms therefore targeted bringing more and more medicines into the market as they could by using their huge investments. AstraZeneca like its competitors had to find ways to discover, develop, produce, and market drugs faster, using less money while at the same maintaining quality.

The organization had several strengths and weaknesses which could be assessed through the various stages involving industry pressure in research and development, application of patent and generics, the health care reforms, the shift to biopharmaceuticals in the industry, and how it coped with competition. These strengths and weaknesses of AstraZeneca could be seen in the formulation of strategy, implementing strategy in transforming R&D, the industry-leading capabilities and their culture. AZN had implemented strategies to increase the success rates and reducing the time it takes to develop a medicine. Other strengths included taking advantage of the patents and generic for instance the $4.9 schizophrenia drug sale in 2009, performed well with competition by instituting an in-depth review to examine key drivers in the present and future, and ability to specialize-in areas of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory, oncology, neuroscience and infection medicine, focused portfolio, culture of courageous leadership, innovation and collaboration, and industry leading capabilities. Some of the weaknesses of AZN could be assessed as capital deficit in the bid to continue being globally integrated and innovative driven rather than concentrate on diversification.

Several problems can be identified in the AZN journey to become a leader in the pharmaceutical industry through growing the business globally, streamlining the organization, increasing efficiency, and building a courageous, creative and collaborative culture. In the area of health care reform there was an unattractive feature which involved a set of control measures in the federal health care plan which were likely to present long-term pricing issues for the industry. The shift to biopharmaceuticals meant that the company was to invest more because biologically manufactured pharmaceuticals were more expensive to manufacture and produce, and represented a different scientific field. Other problems included; global competition which made rivalry in the industry intense, as well as problems associated with challenges in implementing the strategy to transform R&D, installing an external model, and problems associated with capacitating predictive science, personalized healthcare and the clinical trial design.

There are several recommendations which can be referred to AZN through the journey of transforming how new medicines flow to patients. The company should continue encouraging the culture of courageous leadership, innovation and collaboration because it will continue on improve the public view of them as a firm that fosters an inspiring and compelling vision, and spends time involving, developing and empowering their people through creating innovative working ways and new ideas to develop and discover differentiated medicines to patients. The R&D operating model which ensures an effective structure, process and working ways to enhance effectiveness and flexibility, as well as the PIB assessment and oversight of investment opportunities across modalities and disease areas should be encouraged because they help to visualize the right disease target, the right exposure to the right tissue, right patient population, safety of drugs, and how to bring value to the patient. AZN should also focus of improving on assessing prevalence, discoverability, and develop-ability through simplifying the geographic footprint and reducing the cost base.

In conclusion, the AstraZeneca has made huge strides in transforming how new medicines flow to patients and has thus become a large player in the pharmaceutical industry. AZN has succeeded in inspiring and connecting people by actively collaborating irrespective of boundaries to share expertise and knowledge to the benefit of the customers, despite the many challenges the company has grown through. This success was largely contributed by the milestones realized by the executive team that was looking into the ways to develop industry-leading capabilities. This executive team looked for an external framework or model used by other companies to benchmark capabilities needed in R&D. The executive team also identified 21 capabilities needed to run a successful R&D function as well as four major capabilities needed to differentiate AZN in the industry: predictive science, personalized health care, clinical trial design and gaining patient and prayer insight at an earlier point in time. The company should consider concentrating on how to prolong that smarter clinical design, better the understanding of diseases and potential drugs, as well as how to make it personal and get customer patient insights from the start, because this way AZN will maintain its world-class status.





Mandatory Vaccination of Children in the U.S

Mandatory Vaccination of Children in the U.S

It is the official responsibility of all state and local governments to preserve public health.  State and local governments are given powers to enact mandatory vaccine laws, institute measures such as quarantine and isolation among others. Every state in the United States of America has a law drafted to require all children being admitted into a school to provide documented proof, that they have met all the immunization and vaccination requirements of the state they reside in. exemptions are, however, provided for religious, medical or other valid reasons, although these vary from state to state. Those whose immune systems are compromised in one way or another, or are allergic to certain vaccines and have proof of this, or anyone with any contraindications to vaccines is exempted from vaccination. This applies in all states. Nearly all states, with the exception of West Virginia and Mississippi, provide exemptions for people who reject vaccines due to religious reasons. Several cases on the subject of mandatory vaccinations, mainly for children, have been reported from various courts in the United States.

The Jacobson VS Massachusetts case of 1905 is considered the precedent, as it is one of the most important pieces of public health jurisprudence. This particular case upheld the power of individual states to pass compulsory laws requiring all residents of a state, mainly children, to be vaccinated. In this case, determined by the Supreme Court of the United States of America, a Massachusetts law was upheld that granted the boards of health from the Massachusetts municipalities to authorize the vaccination against smallpox of all the residents of the state. The Supreme Court judges were of the opinion that vaccination programs had a substantial relation to the protection of public health. In upholding this law, the supreme court noted that such a law was within the full discretion of the state of Massachusetts, and federal powers related to such laws could only be referred to in order to ensure that these state laws would not in any way contravene the US constitution or infringe any right secured by the constitution.

The early years of last century had seen the state of Massachusetts struggle with an increase in the number deaths resulting from smallpox. Many communities, therefore, required mandatory vaccinations of all residents to try and curb the spread of the menace. Jacobson, believing that the vaccination against smallpox was not sound for his health, refused to have the authorized vaccination, and was subsequently fined a total of $5. He took the matter to court, albeit unsuccessfully, deeming the law to have violated his fourteenth amendment right to liberty. He said that the law unfairly took away from him, the right to care for his own body in the way he knew best. The Supreme Court, however, was of a contrary opinion.

Nearly two decades after the above precedent, the issue of mandatory vaccination was brought to the floor of the United States Supreme Court, albeit this time it was from Texas, the case of Zucht VS King. An ordinance of San Antonio required that no child would be allowed to attend school without having been vaccinated. This led to Rosalyn Zucht being denied access to both public and private schools, which drew a suit to force her admission to school. The plaintiffs argued that the statute set in Jacobson VS Massachusetts was invalid. They failed to consider that the Supreme Court had determined that it is within the power of a state to authorize mandatory vaccination. As in the Jacobson VS Massachusetts case, there was no claim of violation of free exercise adduced.

Although not proven, it is widely believed that vaccines cause or lead to signs of autism in children. The vaccine court, a constituent court of the federal court that hears vaccine injury disputes, has in the last decade or so been at the center of the debate whether vaccines lead to autism in children. A land mark case on this debate was determined in August 2010, the case of Cedillo Vs Department of health and human services. Michelle Cedillo, by the time of the ruling, was a 15-year-old student had developed several medical complications, including autism, in the immediate aftermath of her vaccination. She was administered with Measles-Mumps-rubella vaccine among other vaccines that contained mercury. Her lawyers argued that the combination of live-virus vaccines and mercury containing vaccines led to her critical medical conditions. The federal circuit upheld the vaccine court’s decision that Cedillo did not provide a viable theory that vaccines had caused her autism.

After visiting her pediatrician on 6th January 1996, when she was sixteen months of age, Cedillo started developing a fever and rash. This was accompanied by coughing, vomiting and sagging. Her temperature would rise up to around 107 degrees, confirmed by her then pediatrician. These were followed, as recorded by the pediatrician, by developmental delays, adding that her development was indeed abnormal. She was later diagnosed with autism in July 1997. Apart from the autism and severe mental retardation, Cedillo also suffered from other critical medical conditions that included; fecal impaction, erosive esophagitis and gastoesophageal reflux disease. The case was filed on December 1998, and was determined twelve years later, in a judgment that many deemed unfair to the young Michelle Cedillo.










Jacobson v. Massachusetts, (1905). The United States Supreme Court, 197 U.S. 11

Zucht, by her Next Friend v. King, (1922). The United States Supreme Court, 260 U.S. 174

Cedillo v. secretary of health and human services, (2010). The United States Supreme Court,




Under this thread, please post any current events that are related to e-business and this week’s topic.

Please include the following in the post:

1) Title of article

2) Author

3) Source

4) Date of publication

5) URL

6) Brief summary of article- what will the class learn from this article?

The focus of this week’s topic is Internet Trends. Internet trends is a critical component of e-business as it is the tipping scale between success and failure. Organizations that introduce e-business services that cater to consumer’s “e-habit” (my word for people’s behavior on the Internet) will be profitable.

Please write at least 78 words in this response.



Since 2000, internet has become the main medium of communication and information. People have integrated it in their day-to-day lives and are using it in their daily operations. Buente and Robbin (2008) investigated the changes in the internet trends from 2000-2004. They found that there was increased use of internet information particularly among some demographic groups. Policies ought to focus on how to use the internet rather than dwelling too much on its accessibility. The class can learn from this article that internet information behaviours are ever changing as people discover new ways of using the internet.


Buente, W. &  Robbin, A. (2008). Trends in Internet information behaviour, 2000–2004. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(11), 1743-1760.